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  1. Prevention of influenza by targeting host receptors using engineered proteins.

    PNAS 111(17):6401 (2014) PMID 24733924

    There is a need for new approaches for the control of influenza given the burden caused by annual seasonal outbreaks, the emergence of viruses with pandemic potential, and the development of resistance to current antiviral drugs. We show that multivalent biologics, engineered using carbohydrate-b...
  2. Reply to Jones and Crowe: Correcting mistaken views of sedimentary geology, Mn-oxidation rates, and molecular clocks.

    PNAS 110(44):E4119 (2013) PMID 24344409

  3. Auxins reverse plant male sterility caused by high temperatures.

    PNAS 107(19):8569 (2010) PMID 20421476

    With global warming, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. Activation of auxin biosynthesis with increased t...
  4. The crystal structure of the complex of PII and acetylglutamate kinase reveals how PII controls the storage of nitrogen as arginine.

    PNAS 104(45):17644 (2007) PMID 17959776 PMCID PMC2077032

    Photosynthetic organisms can store nitrogen by synthesizing arginine, and, therefore, feedback inhibition of arginine synthesis must be relieved in these organisms when nitrogen is abundant. This relief is accomplished by the binding of the PII signal transduction protein to acetylglutamate kina...
  5. Molecular level stochastic model for competence cycles in Bacillus subtilis.

    PNAS 104(45):17582 (2007) PMID 17962411 PMCID PMC2077070

    The role of stochasticity and noise in controlling genetic circuits is investigated in the context of transitions into and from competence in Bacillus subtilis. Recent experiments have demonstrated that bistability is not necessary for this function, but that the existence of one stable fixed po...
  6. A common mechanism of PLP/DM20 misfolding causes cysteine-mediated endoplasmic reticulum retention in oligodendrocytes and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease.

    PNAS 104(45):17813 (2007) PMID 17962415 PMCID PMC2077047

    A large number of mutations in the human PLP1 gene lead to abnormal myelination and oligodendrocyte death in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). Here we show that a major subgroup of PMD mutations that map into the extracellular loop region of PLP/DM20 leads to the failure of oligodendrocytes to...
  7. A lifestyle view of life-history evolution.

    PNAS 104(45):17565 (2007) PMID 17984050 PMCID PMC2077064

  8. Single-molecule level analysis of the subunit composition of the T cell receptor on live T cells.

    PNAS 104(45):17662 (2007) PMID 17971442 PMCID PMC2077052

    The T cell receptor (TCR) expressed on most T cells is a protein complex consisting of TCRalphabeta heterodimers that bind antigen and cluster of differentiation (CD) 3epsilondelta, epsilongamma, and zetazeta dimers that initiate signaling. A long-standing controversy concerns whether there is o...
  9. Discordance between living and death assemblages as evidence for anthropogenic ecological change.

    PNAS 104(45):17701 (2007) PMID 17965231 PMCID PMC2077045

    Mismatches between the composition of a time-averaged death assemblage (dead remains sieved from the upper mixed-zone of the sedimentary column) and the local living community are typically attributed to natural postmortem processes. However, statistical analysis of 73 molluscan data sets from e...
  10. Statistical evaluation of alternative models of human evolution.

    PNAS 104(45):17614 (2007) PMID 17978179 PMCID PMC2077041

    An appropriate model of recent human evolution is not only important to understand our own history, but it is necessary to disentangle the effects of demography and selection on genome diversity. Although most genetic data support the view that our species originated recently in Africa, it is st...
  11. Identification of teosinte, maize, and Tripsacum in Mesoamerica by using pollen, starch grains, and phytoliths.

    PNAS 104(45):17608 (2007) PMID 17978176 PMCID PMC2077075

    We examined pollen grains and starch granules from a large number of modern populations of teosinte (wild Zea spp.), maize (Zea mays L.), and closely related grasses in the genus Tripsacum to assess their strengths and weaknesses in studying the origins and early dispersals of maize in its Mesoa...
  12. Ablation of sarcolipin enhances sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport and atrial contractility.

    PNAS 104(45):17867 (2007) PMID 17971438 PMCID PMC2077025

    Sarcolipin is a novel regulator of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) and is expressed abundantly in atria. In this study we investigated the physiological significance of sarcolipin in the heart by generating a mouse model deficient for sarcolipin. The sarcolipin-null mice ...
  13. Designer enediynes generate DNA breaks, interstrand cross-links, or both, with concomitant changes in the regulation of DNA damage responses.

    PNAS 104(45):17632 (2007) PMID 17978180 PMCID PMC2077023

    The ability of the radiomimetic anticancer enediyne C-1027 to induce ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR)-independent damage responses was discovered to reside in its unique ability to concurrently generate robust amounts of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and interstra...
  14. Estimation of the number of virus particles transmitted by an insect vector.

    PNAS 104(45):17891 (2007) PMID 17971440 PMCID PMC2077060

    Plant viruses are submitted to narrow population bottlenecks both during infection of their hosts and during horizontal transmission between host individuals. The size of bottlenecks exerted on virus populations during plant invasion has been estimated in a few pathosystems but is not addressed ...
  15. Duplication and segregation of the actin (MreB) cytoskeleton during the prokaryotic cell cycle.

    PNAS 104(45):17795 (2007) PMID 17978175 PMCID PMC2077029

    The bacterial actin homolog MreB exists as a single-copy helical cytoskeletal structure that extends between the two poles of rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, we show that equipartition of the MreB cytoskeleton into daughter cells is accomplished by division and segregation of the helical Mre...
  16. Marine sediments tell it like it was.

    PNAS 104(45):17563 (2007) PMID 17968014 PMCID PMC2077044

  17. Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzees.

    PNAS 104(45):17588 (2007) PMID 17968009 PMCID PMC2077048

    Culture has long been considered to be not only unique to humans, but also responsible for making us qualitatively different from all other forms of life. In recent years, however, researchers studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have challenged this idea. Natural populations of chimpanzees ha...
  18. Drosophila TRP channels require a protein with a distinctive motif encoded by the inaF locus.

    PNAS 104(45):17730 (2007) PMID 17968007 PMCID PMC2077074

    In both vertebrates and invertebrates, ion channels of the TRP superfamily are known to be influenced by a variety of accessory factors, but the list of interacting proteins is acknowledged to be incomplete. Although previous work showed that Drosophila TRP function is disrupted by mutations in ...
  19. Human capping enzyme promotes formation of transcriptional R loops in vitro.

    PNAS 104(45):17620 (2007) PMID 17978174 PMCID PMC2077024

    Cap formation is the first step of pre-mRNA processing in eukaryotic cells. Immediately after transcription initiation, capping enzyme (CE) is recruited to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) by the phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal domain of the Pol II largest subunit (CTD), allowing cotranscriptional ca...
  20. Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding.

    PNAS 104(45):17825 (2007) PMID 17965234 PMCID PMC2077067

    Experiments in monkeys demonstrated that many parietal and premotor neurons coding a specific motor act (e.g., grasping) show a markedly different activation when this act is part of actions that have different goals (e.g., grasping for eating vs. grasping for placing). Many of these "action-con...