Human endogenous retroviruses: friend or foe?
Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica Se... 124(1-2):4 (2016)
The integration of proviral DNA into host chromosomal DNA as an obligatory step in the replication cycle of retroviruses is a natural event of genetic recombination between virus and host. When integration occurs in cells of the germ line, it results in mendelian inheritance of viral sequences t...
70th Anniversary Collection of the Microbiology Society: Journal of General Virology.
Journal of General Virology 96(12):3457 (2015)
Chris Marshall (1949–2015).
Cell 162(6):1177 (2015)
What's the host and what's the microbe? The Marjory Stephenson Prize Lecture 2015.
Journal of General Virology 96(9):2501 (2015)
The interchange between retroviruses and their hosts is an intimate one because retroviruses integrate proviral DNA into host chromosomal DNA as an obligate step in the replication cycle. This has resulted in the occasional transduction of host genes into retroviral genomes as oncogenes, and als...
Structural Repertoire of HIV-1-Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the CD4 Supersite in 14 Donors.
Cell 161(6):1280 (2015)
The site on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein that binds the CD4 receptor is recognized by broadly reactive antibodies, several of which neutralize over 90% of HIV-1 strains. To understand how antibodies achieve such neutralization, we isolated CD4-binding-site (CD4bs) antibodies and analyzed 16 co-c...
Defense-in-depth by mucosally administered anti-HIV dimeric IgA2 and systemic IgG1 mAbs: complete protection of rhesus monkeys from mucosal SHIV challenge.
Vaccine 33(17):2086 (2015)
Although IgA is the most abundantly produced immunoglobulin in humans, its role in preventing HIV-1 acquisition, which occurs mostly via mucosal routes, remains unclear. In our passive mucosal immunizations of rhesus macaques (RMs), the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmAb) HGN194, ...
The prevention and eradication of smallpox: a commentary on Sloane (1755) 'An account of inoculation'.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society... 370(1666) (2015)
Sir Hans Sloane's account of inoculation as a means to protect against smallpox followed several earlier articles published in Philosophical Transactions on this procedure. Inoculation (also called 'variolation') involved the introduction of small amounts of infectious material from smallpox ves...
Neutralization properties of simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting chimpanzees and gorillas.
mBio 6(2) (2015)
Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting cen...
Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.
PLoS Pathogens 10(12):e1004552 (2014)
To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized l...
Transmissible [corrected] dog cancer genome reveals the origin and history of an ancient cell lineage.
Science 343(6169):437 (2014)
Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is the oldest known somatic cell lineage. It is a transmissible cancer that propagates naturally in dogs. We sequenced the genomes of two CTVT tumors and found that CTVT has acquired 1.9 million somatic substitution mutations and bears evidence of expos...
Immunotherapy for HIV Infection.
New England Journal of Medicine 370(4):379 (2014)
Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies.
Retrovirology 11(1):83 (2014)
Direct cell-cell spread of HIV-1 is a very efficient mode of viral dissemination, with increasing evidence suggesting that it may pose a considerable challenge to controlling viral replication in vivo. Much current vaccine research involves the study of broadly neutralising antibodies (bNabs) th...
Obituary: Axel Rethwilm (1959-2014).
Retrovirology 11:85 (2014)
In tribute to Joep Lange.
Retrovirology 11(1):82 (2014)
On the concept and elucidation of endogenous retroviruses.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society... 368(1626):20120494 (2013)
Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. The presence of ERV was confirmed by DNA hybridization. With complete h...
Virology. Our viral inheritance.
Science 340(6134):820 (2013)
A gp41 MPER-specific llama VHH requires a hydrophobic CDR3 for neutralization but not for antigen recognition.
PLoS Pathogens 9(3):e1003202 (2013)
The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by the broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. To date, no immunization regimen in animals or humans has produced HIV-1 neutralizing MPER-specific antibodies. We immunized llamas with gp41-MPER proteoli...
Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 induced by immunization.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 210(2):209 (2013)
Most neutralizing antibodies act at the earliest steps of viral infection and block interaction of the virus with cellular receptors to prevent entry into host cells. The inability to induce neutralizing antibodies to HIV has been a major obstacle to HIV vaccine research since the early days of ...
Thirty years on: HIV receptor gymnastics and the prevention of infection.
BMC Biology 11:57 (2013)
During 30 years of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), our knowledge of its cellular receptors--CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4--has illuminated aspects of the pathogenesis of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Studying how the HIV envelope glycoproteins interact with the receptors ...
On HIV diversity.
AIDS 26(10):1255 (2012)
HIV type 1 (HIV-1) displays a greater degree of genetic and antigenic variability than any other virus studied. This diversity reflects a high mutation rate during viral replication with a large turnover of virus, and a high tolerance of variation while maintaining reproductive capacity. Generat...