Targeted therapeutics for severe refractory asthma: monoclonal antibodies.
Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 9(7):927 (2016)
Severe asthma is a complex multifactorial disease that requires specialist multidisciplinary input for optimal clinical outcomes. Following multidimensional assessment for optimisation of current therapy, self-management skills and comorbidities, all patients should be accurately phenotyped. Onl...
Advances in the treatment of virus-induced asthma.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 10(6):629 (2016)
Viral exacerbations continue to represent the major burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and health care costs associated with asthma. Those at greatest risk for acute asthma are those with more severe airways disease and poor asthma control. It is this group with established asthma in whom a...
Diagnosis and investigation in the severe asthma clinic.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 10(5):491 (2016)
Severe asthma is recognised as an important and emerging area of unmet need in asthma. The assessment of severe asthma should include three steps; (1) determining the diagnosis of asthma, including verification that the disease is severe asthma, (2) assessing comorbidities and contributing facto...
A randomised trial of hypertonic saline during hospitalisation for exacerbation of cystic fibrosis.
Thorax 71(2):141 (2016)
The mucoactive effects of hypertonic saline should promote exacerbation resolution in people with cystic fibrosis (CF).
To determine the effects of hypertonic saline inhalation during hospitalisation for exacerbation of CF on length of stay, lung function, symptoms, oxygenation, exercise toleran...
Acute oxygen therapy: a review of prescribing and delivery practices.
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pu... 11:1067 (2016)
Oxygen is a commonly used drug in the clinical setting and like other drugs its use must be considered carefully. This is particularly true for those patients who are at risk of type II respiratory failure in whom the risk of hypercapnia is well established. In recent times, several internationa...
Innate Immunity and Immune Evasion by Enterovirus 71.
Viruses 7(12):6613 (2015)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major infectious disease affecting millions of people worldwide and it is the main etiological agent for outbreaks of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection is often associated with severe gastroenterological, pulmonary, and neurological diseases that are most p...
Toll-like receptor 7 governs interferon and inflammatory responses to rhinovirus and is suppressed by IL-5-induced lung eosinophilia.
Thorax 70(9):854 (2015)
Asthma exacerbations represent a significant disease burden and are commonly caused by rhinovirus (RV), which is sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLR) such as TLR7. Some asthmatics have impaired interferon (IFN) responses to RV, but the underlying mechanisms of this clinically relevant observation...
CD8 T cells and dendritic cells: key players in the attenuated maternal immune response to influenza infection.
Journal of Reproductive Immunology 107:1 (2015)
Pregnancy provides a unique challenge for maternal immunity, requiring the ability to tolerate the presence of a semi-allogeneic foetus, and yet still being capable of inducing an immune response against invading pathogens. To achieve this, numerous changes must occur in the activity and functio...
The placental protein syncytin-1 impairs antiviral responses and exaggerates inflammatory responses to influenza.
PLoS ONE 10(4):e0118629 (2015)
Pregnancy increases susceptibility to influenza. The placenta releases an immunosuppressive endogenous retroviral protein syncytin-1. We hypothesised that exposure of peripheral monocytes (PBMCs) to syncytin-1 would impair responses to H1N1pdm09 influenza.
Recombinant syncytin-1 was produced. PB...
Differential injurious effects of ambient and traffic-derived particulate matter on airway epithelial cells.
Respirology 20(1):73 (2015)
Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) may promote development of childhood asthma and trigger acute exacerbations of existing asthma via injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC).
We compared the response of AEC to ambient particulates with median aerodynamic diameters of <10 μm or <2.5 μm ...
The interaction between mother and fetus and the development of allergic asthma.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 8(1):57 (2014)
The rising prevalence of asthma and atopic disease in industrialized countries in the last 50 years has raised important questions about how and why the disease develops in susceptible populations. Most asthma begins in childhood in association with allergic sensitization and the development of ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CD8 T cells from pregnant women show altered phenotype and function following H1N1/09 infection.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 208(7):1062 (2013)
Pregnant women are a high-risk group during influenza pandemics. In this study we determined whether plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and CD8 T cells from pregnant women display altered activity following in vitro infection with 2009 pandemic swine influenza (H1N1/09).
Peripheral blood mononu...
A prospective study of respiratory viral infection in pregnant women with and without asthma.
Chest 144(2):420 (2013)
Respiratory viral infections are common in pregnancy, but their health impact, especially in asthma, is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency, severity, and consequences of respiratory viral infection during pregnancy in women with and without asthma.
In this prospecti...
Viral and bacterial infection in acute asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases the risk of readmission.
Respirology 18(6):996 (2013)
Infection is as an important trigger for acute asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this article was to determine the prevalence and impact of virus and bacterial infections in acute asthma and COPD.
Subjects were recruited, within 24 h of hospital admission for ac...
Alterations in inflammatory, antiviral and regulatory cytokine responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant women with asthma.
Respirology 18(5):827 (2013)
Severe asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are a common complication leading to poor health outcomes for both the mother and the baby. Asthma exacerbations are caused most frequently by respiratory viruses. A balance between antiviral and inflammatory immune responses is critical during pregna...
The E3 ubiquitin ligase midline 1 promotes allergen and rhinovirus-induced asthma by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A activity.
Nature Medicine 19(2):232 (2013)
Allergic airway inflammation is associated with activation of innate immune pathways by allergens. Acute exacerbations of asthma are commonly associated with rhinovirus infection. Here we show that, after exposure to house dust mite (HDM) or rhinovirus infection, the E3 ubiquitin ligase midline ...
Novel immune genes associated with excessive inflammatory and antiviral responses to rhinovirus in COPD.
Respiratory Research 14:15 (2013)
Rhinovirus (RV) is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, and primarily infects bronchial epithelial cells. Immune responses from BECs to RV infection are critical in limiting viral replication, and remain unclear in COPD. The objective of this study is to i...
RAGE: a new frontier in chronic airways disease.
British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy 167(6):1161 (2012)
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous inflammatory disorders of the respiratory tract characterized by airflow obstruction. It is now clear that the environmental factors that drive airway pathology in asthma and COPD, including allergens, viruses, ozone and c...
Innate immunity to influenza in chronic airways diseases.
Respirology 17(8):1166 (2012)
Influenza presents a unique human infectious disease that has a substantial impact on the public health, in general, and especially for those with chronic airways diseases. People with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are particularly vulnerable to influenza infection and ...
Pregnant women have attenuated innate interferon responses to 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1.
Journal of Infectious Diseases 206(5):646 (2012)
Pregnant women are considered to have a high risk for influenza virus infection, although little is known about the biological reasons for this risk. Antiviral immunity is critical during influenza virus infection, and understanding the changes that occur during pregnancy and the effect of vacci...