1. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to HIV and Their Role in Vaccine Design.

    Immunology 34:635 (2016) PMID 27168247

    HIV employs multiple means to evade the humoral immune response, particularly the elicitation of and recognition by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Such antibodies can act antivirally against a wide spectrum of viruses by targeting relatively conserved regions on the surface HIV envelop...
  2. The impact of vaccination on the breadth and magnitude of the antibody response to influenza A viruses in HIV-infected individuals.

    AIDS 29(14):1803 (2015) PMID 26372386

    HIV-positive individuals have lower antibody titers to influenza viruses than HIV-negative individuals, and the benefits of the annual vaccinations are controversially discussed. Also, there is no information about the breadth of the antibody response in HIV-infected individuals. The binding and...
  3. Heterosubtypic antibodies to influenza A virus have limited activity against cell-bound virus but are not impaired by strain-specific serum antibodies.

    Journal of Virology 89(6):3136 (2015) PMID 25552718 PMCID PMC4337524

    The majority of influenza virus-specific antibodies elicited by vaccination or natural infection are effective only against the eliciting or closely related viruses. Rare stem-specific heterosubtypic monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) can neutralize multiple strains and subtypes by preventing hemaggl...
  4. Prevalence and predictors for homo- and heterosubtypic antibodies against influenza a virus.

    Clinical Infectious Diseases 59(10):1386 (2014) PMID 25139962

    The effectiveness of trivalent influenza vaccination has been confirmed in several studies. To date, it is not known whether repeated exposure and vaccination to influenza promote production of cross-reactive antibodies. Furthermore, how strains encountered earlier in life imprint the immune res...
  5. Alternative recognition of the conserved stem epitope in influenza A virus hemagglutinin by a VH3-30-encoded heterosubtypic antibody.

    Journal of Virology 88(12):7083 (2014) PMID 24719426 PMCID PMC4054347

    A human monoclonal heterosubtypic antibody, MAb 3.1, with its heavy chain encoded by VH3-30, was isolated using phage display with immobilized hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza virus A/Japan/305/1957(H2N2) as the target. Antibody 3.1 potently neutralizes influenza viruses from the H1a clade (i.e...
  6. Recombinant HIV envelope proteins fail to engage germline versions of anti-CD4bs bNAbs.

    PLoS Pathogens 9(1):e1003106 (2013) PMID 23300456 PMCID PMC3536657

    Vaccine candidates for HIV-1 so far have not been able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) although they express the epitopes recognized by bNAbs to the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env). To understand whether and how Env immunogens interact with the predicted germline versions of kn...
  7. Anti-HIV B Cell lines as candidate vaccine biosensors.

    Journal of Immunology 189(10):4816 (2012) PMID 23066156 PMCID PMC3626558

    Challenge studies following passive immunization with neutralizing Abs suggest that an HIV vaccine could be efficacious were it able to elicit broadly neutralizing Abs (bNAbs). To better understand the requirements for activation of B cells producing bNAbs, we generated cell lines expressing bNA...
  8. Effective, low-titer antibody protection against low-dose repeated mucosal SHIV challenge in macaques.

    Nature Medicine 15(8):951 (2009) PMID 19525965 PMCID PMC4334439

    Neutralizing antibodies are thought to be crucial for HIV vaccine protection, but studies in animal models suggest that high antibody concentrations are required. This is a major potential hurdle for vaccine design. However, these studies typically apply a large virus inoculum to ensure infectio...
  9. Broadly neutralizing human anti-HIV antibody 2G12 is effective in protection against mucosal SHIV challenge even at low serum neutralizing titers.

    PLoS Pathogens 5(5):e1000433 (2009) PMID 19436712 PMCID PMC2674935

    Developing an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is an elusive but important goal of HIV vaccine research, especially after the recent failure of the leading T cell based HIV vaccine in human efficacy trials. Even if such an immunogen can be developed, most animal mod...
  10. Recombination of retrotransposon and exogenous RNA virus results in nonretroviral cDNA integration.

    Science 323(5912):393 (2009) PMID 19150848

    Retroviruses have the potential to acquire host cell-derived genetic material during reverse transcription and can integrate into the genomes of larger, more complex DNA viruses. In contrast, RNA viruses were believed not to integrate into the host's genome under any circumstances. We found that...
  11. Absence of CTL responses to early viral antigens facilitates viral persistence.

    Journal of Immunology 180(5):3113 (2008) PMID 18292534

    CD8+ T cells are crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens such as viruses and some bacteria. Using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice--the prototypic arenavirus evolutionarily closely related to human Lassa fever and South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, we...
  12. Antibodies against viruses: passive and active immunization

    Current Opinion in Immunology 20(4):486 (2008) PMID 18577455 PMCID PMC2730944

    Antibodies, through passive or active immunization, play a central role in prophylaxis against many infectious agents. While neutralization is a primary function of antibodies in protection against most viruses, the relative contribution of Fc-dependent and complement-dependent anti-viral a...
  13. Antibodies against viruses: passive and active immunization

    Current Opinion in Immunology 20(4):486 (2008) PMID 18577455 PMCID PMC2730944

    Antibodies, through passive or active immunization, play a central role in prophylaxis against many infectious agents. While neutralization is a primary function of antibodies in protection against most viruses, the relative contribution of Fc-dependent and complement-dependent anti-viral a...
  14. Extralymphatic virus sanctuaries as a consequence of potent T-cell activation.

    Nature Medicine 13(11):1316 (2007) PMID 17982463

    T helper cells can support the functions of CD8(+) T cells against persistently infecting viruses such as murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus and HIV. These viruses often resist complete elimination and remain detectable at sanctuary sites, such a...
  15. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV.

    Nature 449(7158):101 (2007) PMID 17805298

    Most successful vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies and this property is a high priority when developing an HIV vaccine. Indeed, passively administered neutralizing antibodies have been shown to protect against HIV challenge in some of the best available animal models. For example, antibodie...
  16. Attenuated measles virus as a vaccine vector.

    Vaccine 25(16):2974 (2007) PMID 17303293 PMCID PMC3707277

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the inserti...
  17. Attenuated measles virus as a vaccine vector

    Vaccine 25(16):2974 (2007)

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the in...
  18. Parameters governing exhaustion of rare T cell-independent neutralizing IgM-producing B cells after LCMV infection.

    European Journal of Immunology 36(12):3175 (2006) PMID 17125146

    The late appearance of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) has been attributed to various factors including immunopathology, low frequency of high-affinity specific B cells and competition by nonspecific polyclonal B cell activation. To investigate the...
  19. Nonneutralizing antibodies binding to the surface glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus reduce early virus spread.

    Journal of Experimental Medicine 203(8):2033 (2006) PMID 16880253 PMCID PMC2118372

    The biological relevance of nonneutralizing antibodies elicited early after infection with noncytopathic persistence-prone viruses is unclear. We demonstrate that cytotoxic T lymphocyte-deficient TgH(KL25) mice, which are transgenic for the heavy chain of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (...
  20. Antiviral antibody responses: the two extremes of a wide spectrum.

    Nature Reviews: Immunology 6(3):231 (2006) PMID 16498452

    Viruses elicit a diverse spectrum of antiviral antibody responses. In this review, we discuss two widely used experimental model systems for viral infections - non-cytopathic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and acutely cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) - to analyse two fundam...