1. Amphetamine-induced sensitization and reward uncertainty similarly enhance incentive salience for conditioned cues.

    Behavioral Neuroscience 129(4):502 (2015) PMID 26076340

    Amphetamine and stress can sensitize mesolimbic dopamine-related systems. In Pavlovian autoshaping, repeated exposure to uncertainty of reward prediction can enhance motivated sign-tracking or attraction to a discrete reward-predicting cue (lever-conditioned stimulus; CS+), as well as produce cr...
  2. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PMID 25761571

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming ob...
  3. Pleasure systems in the brain.

    Neuron 86(3):646 (2015) PMID 25950633 PMCID PMC4425246

    Pleasure is mediated by well-developed mesocorticolimbic circuitry and serves adaptive functions. In affective disorders, anhedonia (lack of pleasure) or dysphoria (negative affect) can result from breakdowns of that hedonic system. Human neuroimaging studies indicate that surprisingly similar c...
  4. The Hunger Games

    Cell 160(5):805 (2015)

    Although AgRP and POMC neurons in the hypothalamus have long been associated with regulation of food intake, in this issue of Cell, Chen et al. use direct imaging in vivo to demonstrate rapid changes in their activity upon food presentation. The rapidity of their altered responses chal...
  5. The hunger games.

    Cell 160(5):805 (2015) PMID 25723156

    Although AgRP and POMC neurons in the hypothalamus have long been associated with regulation of food intake, in this issue of Cell, Chen et al. use direct imaging in vivo to demonstrate rapid changes in their activity upon food presentation. The rapidity of their altered responses challenges cla...
  6. The hunger games.

    Cell 160(5):805 (2015) PMID 25723156

    Although AgRP and POMC neurons in the hypothalamus have long been associated with regulation of food intake, in this issue of Cell, Chen et al. use direct imaging in vivo to demonstrate rapid changes in their activity upon food presentation. The rapidity of their altered responses challenges cla...
  7. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry.

    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 9:90 (2015) PMID 26124708 PMCID PMC4466441

    The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum (VP), in controlling motiv...
  8. Optogenetic excitation of central amygdala amplifies and narrows incentive motivation to pursue one reward above another.

    Journal of Neuroscience 34(50):16567 (2014) PMID 25505310 PMCID PMC4261087

    Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygda...
  9. Optogenetic excitation of central amygdala amplifies and narrows incentive motivation to pursue one reward above another.

    Journal of Neuroscience 34(50):16567 (2014) PMID 25505310

    Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygda...
  10. Optogenetic excitation of central amygdala amplifies and narrows incentive motivation to pursue one reward above another.

    Journal of Neuroscience 34(50):16567 (2014) PMID 25505310 PMCID PMC4261087

    Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygda...
  11. Optogenetic excitation of central amygdala amplifies and narrows incentive motivation to pursue one reward above another.

    Journal of Neuroscience 34(50):16567 (2014) PMID 25505310 PMCID PMC4261087

    Choosing one reward above another is important for achieving adaptive life goals. Yet hijacked into excessive intensity in disorders such as addiction, single-minded pursuit becomes maladaptive. Here, we report that optogenetic channelrhodopsin stimulation of neurons in central nucleus of amygda...
  12. Excessive disgust caused by brain lesions or temporary inactivations: mapping hotspots of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum.

    European Journal of Neuroscience 40(10):3556 (2014) PMID 25229197 PMCID PMC4236281

    Disgust is a prototypical type of negative affect. In animal models of excessive disgust, only a few brain sites are known in which localized dysfunction (lesions or neural inactivations) can induce intense 'disgust reactions' (e.g. gapes) to a normally pleasant sensation such as sweetness. Here...
  13. Excessive disgust caused by brain lesions or temporary inactivations: mapping hotspots of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum.

    European Journal of Neuroscience 40(10):3556 (2014) PMID 25229197 PMCID PMC4236281

    Disgust is a prototypical type of negative affect. In animal models of excessive disgust, only a few brain sites are known in which localized dysfunction (lesions or neural inactivations) can induce intense 'disgust reactions' (e.g. gapes) to a normally pleasant sensation such as sweetness. Here...
  14. Excessive disgust caused by brain lesions or temporary inactivations: mapping hotspots of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum.

    European Journal of Neuroscience 40(10):3556 (2014) PMID 25229197 PMCID PMC4236281

    Disgust is a prototypical type of negative affect. In animal models of excessive disgust, only a few brain sites are known in which localized dysfunction (lesions or neural inactivations) can induce intense 'disgust reactions' (e.g. gapes) to a normally pleasant sensation such as sweetness. Here...
  15. Initial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues.

    Behavioural Brain Research 266:119 (2014) PMID 24631397 PMCID PMC4016791

    Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of...
  16. Model-based and model-free Pavlovian reward learning: revaluation, revision, and revelation.

    Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 14(2):473 (2014) PMID 24647659 PMCID PMC4074442

    Evidence supports at least two methods for learning about reward and punishment and making predictions for guiding actions. One method, called model-free, progressively acquires cached estimates of the long-run values of circumstances and actions from retrospective experience. The other method, ...
  17. Initial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues

    Behavioural Brain Research 266:119 (2014)

    • Reward uncertainty elevates the attraction of multiple predictive cues. • Reward uncertainty also recruits non-preferred exposed and distal cues. ...
  18. Initial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues

    Behavioural Brain Research 266:119 (2014)

    • Reward uncertainty elevates the attraction of multiple predictive cues. • Reward uncertainty also recruits non-preferred exposed and distal cues. ...
  19. Initial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues.

    Behavioural Brain Research 266:119 (2014) PMID 24631397 PMCID PMC4016791

    Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of...
  20. Model-based and model-free Pavlovian reward learning: revaluation, revision, and revelation.

    Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 14(2):473 (2014) PMID 24647659 PMCID PMC4074442

    Evidence supports at least two methods for learning about reward and punishment and making predictions for guiding actions. One method, called model-free, progressively acquires cached estimates of the long-run values of circumstances and actions from retrospective experience. The other method, ...