Neurofilament light in CSF and serum is a sensitive marker for axonal white matter injury in MS.
Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation 3(5):e271 (2016)
In an ongoing, open-label, phase 1b study on the intrathecal administration of rituximab for progressive multiple sclerosis, an intraventricular catheter was inserted for drug delivery. The objective of this study was to characterize the limited white matter axonal injury evoked by catheter inse...
A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers.
Neurology 87(5):539 (2016)
Biomarkers have become an essential component of Alzheimer disease (AD) research and because of the pervasiveness of AD pathology in the elderly, the same biomarkers are used in cognitive aging research. A number of current issues suggest that an unbiased descriptive classification scheme for th...
Biomarker clusters are differentially associated with longitudinal cognitive decline in late midlife.
Brain 139(Pt 8):2261 (2016)
The ability to detect preclinical Alzheimer's disease is of great importance, as this stage of the Alzheimer's continuum is believed to provide a key window for intervention and prevention. As Alzheimer's disease is characterized by multiple pathological changes, a biomarker panel reflecting co-...
The Lancet 388(10043):505 (2016)
Although the prevalence of dementia continues to increase worldwide, incidence in the western world might have decreased as a result of better vascular care and improved brain health. Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent cause of dementia, is still defined by the combined presence of amyloid ...
Low Circulating Acute Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels Are Associated With Poor Long-Term Functional Outcome After Ischemic Stroke.
Stroke 47(7):1943 (2016)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in brain plasticity and repair, and it influences stroke outcomes in animal models. Circulating BDNF concentrations are lowered in patients with traumatic brain injury, and low BDNF predicts poor recovery after this injury. We sought...
Assessing the commutability of reference material formats for the harmonization of amyloid-β measurements.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 54(7):1177 (2016)
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β (Aβ42) peptide is an important biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Variability in measured Aβ42 concentrations at different laboratories may be overcome by standardization and establishing traceability to a reference system. Candidate certified referen...
Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on a Biomarker of Head Trauma in American Football.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 48(6):974 (2016)
American football athletes are exposed to subconcussive impacts over the course of the season resulting in elevations in serum neurofilament light (NFL), a biomarker of axonal injury. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been reported to reduce axonal trauma associated with traumatic brain injury in r...
Cerebrospinal fluid levels of insulin, leptin, and agouti-related protein in relation to BMI in pregnant women.
Obesity 24(6):1299 (2016)
During pregnancy, metabolic interactions must be adapted, though neuroendocrine mechanisms for increased food intake are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize differences in insulin, leptin, and agouti-related protein (AgRP) levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (C...
CSF and blood biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The Lancet Neurology 15(7):673 (2016)
Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are important for early diagnosis in routine clinical practice and research. Three core CSF biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (Aβ42, T-tau, and P-tau) have been assessed in numerous studies, and several other Alzheimer's disease markers are emergi...
Longitudinal Measurements of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease.
Movement Disorders 31(6):898 (2016)
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of tau, phosphorylated tau, β-amyloid42 , α-synuclein, neurofilament light, and YKL-40 change over time and if changes correlate with motor progression and/or cognitive decline in patients with PD and controls....
Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases-From pathophysiology to clinical practice.
Movement Disorders 31(6):836 (2016)
This review provides an update on the role, development, and validation of CSF biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease and PD. Some recent developments on novel biomarkers are also discussed. We also give an overview of methodological/technical factors still hampering th...
Myo-inositol changes precede amyloid pathology and relate to APOE genotype in Alzheimer disease.
Neurology 86(19):1754 (2016)
We aimed to test whether in vivo levels of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolites myo-inositol (mI), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and choline are abnormal already during preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD), relating these changes to amyloid or tau pathology, and functional connectivity.
Technical performance of a novel, fully automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for the quantitation of β-amyloid (1-42) in human cerebrospinal fluid.
Alzheimer's & Dementia 12(5):517 (2016)
Available assays for quantitation of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ [1-42]) in cerebrospinal fluid demonstrate significant variability and lack of standardization to reference measurement procedures (RMPs). We report analytical performance data for the novel Elecsys...
Insulin Resistance is Associated with Increased Levels of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease and Reduced Memory Function in At-Risk Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 52(4):1373 (2016)
Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Regulation of normal insulin function may be important in reducing the prevalence of dementia due to AD, particularly in individuals who harbor genetic risk for or have a parental family history of AD. The relatio...
C3 deficiency ameliorates the negative effects of irradiation of the young brain on hippocampal development and learning.
Oncotarget 7(15):19382 (2016)
Radiotherapy in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors is often associated with debilitating late-appearing adverse effects, such as intellectual impairment. Areas in the brain harboring stem cells are particularly sensitive to irradiation (IR) and loss of these cells may contribute to cognitiv...
Clearance systems in the brain--implications for Alzheimer diseaser.
Nature Clinical Practice Neurology 12(4):248 (2016)
Identification of tissue-specific cell death using methylation patterns of circulating DNA.
PNAS 113(13):E1826 (2016)
Minimally invasive detection of cell death could prove an invaluable resource in many physiologic and pathologic situations. Cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) released from dying cells is emerging as a diagnostic tool for monitoring cancer dynamics and graft failure. However, existing methods re...
YKL-40 is a CSF biomarker of intrathecal inflammation in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Journal of Neuroimmunology 292:52 (2016)
YKL-40 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein predominantly produced by reactive astrocytes in chronic active MS lesions, which are common in secondary progressive MS. In this study, YKL-40 was investigated in different stages of MS and in relation to MRI findings. YKL-40 levels in CSF samples from two inde...
Comparison of Different Matrices as Potential Quality Control Samples for Neurochemical Dementia Diagnostics.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 52(1):51 (2016)
Assay-vendor independent quality control (QC) samples for neurochemical dementia diagnostics (NDD) biomarkers are so far commercially unavailable. This requires that NDD laboratories prepare their own QC samples, for example by pooling leftover cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples.
To prepare and t...
Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Definition, natural history, and diagnostic criteria.
Alzheimer's & Dementia 12(3):292 (2016)
During the past decade, a conceptual shift occurred in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering the disease as a continuum. Thanks to evolving biomarker research and substantial discoveries, it is now possible to identify the disease even at the preclinical stage before the occurrence o...