1. COPD is characterized by increased detection of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a deficiency of Bacillus species.

    Respirology 21(4):697 (2016) PMID 26781464

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and inflammation. Airway bacterial colonization is increased in COPD; however, the role of potentially pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria in the pathogenesis of disease is unclear. This study char...
  2. TNF-α and Macrophages Are Critical for Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Exacerbations in a Mouse Model of Allergic Airways Disease.

    Journal of Immunology 196(9):3547 (2016) PMID 27036916

    Viral respiratory infections trigger severe exacerbations of asthma, worsen disease symptoms, and impair lung function. To investigate the mechanisms underlying viral exacerbation, we established a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced exacerbation after allergen sensitization...
  3. Sputum mast cell subtypes relate to eosinophilia and corticosteroid response in asthma.

    European Respiratory Journal 47(4):1123 (2016) PMID 26699720

    Mast cells are a resident inflammatory cell of the airways, involved in both the innate and adaptive immune response. The relationship between mast cells and inflammatory phenotypes and treatment response of asthma is not clear.Clinical characteristics of subjects with stable asthma (n=55), infl...
  4. Neutrophil extracellular traps are associated with inflammation in chronic airway disease.

    Respirology 21(3):467 (2016) PMID 26804470

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are web-like structures comprising DNA and antimicrobial proteins, expelled from neutrophils during NETosis. Persistence of NETs can be pro-inflammatory, yet their role in respiratory disease remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the presence of N...
  5. Absence of airway inflammation in a large proportion of adolescents with asthma.

    Respirology 21(3):460 (2016) PMID 26693952

    Neutrophilic inflammation has been implicated in non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA) in adults, but little is known about NEA in children/adolescents. We assessed clinical and inflammatory characteristics of NEA in adolescent asthma. Airway inflammation, sputum endotoxin, airway hyper-reactivity, atop...
  6. Reduced Antiviral Interferon Production in Poorly Controlled Asthma Is Associated With Neutrophilic Inflammation and High-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroids.

    Chest 149(3):704 (2016) PMID 26836898

    Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disease in which host defense against respiratory viruses such as human rhinovirus (HRV) may be abnormal. This is a matter of some controversy, with some investigators reporting reduced type I interferon (IFN) synthesis and others suggesting that ty...
  7. Airway dysbiosis: Haemophilus influenzae and Tropheryma in poorly controlled asthma.

    European Respiratory Journal 47(3):792 (2016) PMID 26647445

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways where bacteria may act as protagonists of chronic inflammation. Little is known about the relation of airway inflammation to the presence of specific bacterial taxa. We sought to describe the sputum microbiome in adults with poorly control...
  8. Is Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytic Dysfunction in Children With Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis a Forerunner to Bronchiectasis?

    Chest 149(2):508 (2016) PMID 26867834

    Children with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) and bronchiectasis share common features, and PBB is likely a forerunner to bronchiectasis. Both diseases are associated with neutrophilic inflammation and frequent isolation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, including nontype...
  9. Periostin levels and eosinophilic inflammation in poorly-controlled asthma.

    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 16(1):67 (2016) PMID 27130294 PMCID PMC4851782

    Periostin levels are associated with airway eosinophilia and are suppressed by corticosteroid treatment in asthma. This study sought to determine the relationship between serum and sputum periostin, airway inflammatory phenotype and asthma control. Adults with poorly-controlled asthma (n = 83) u...
  10. Peripheral blood eosinophils: a surrogate marker for airway eosinophilia in stable COPD.

    International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pu... 11:1495 (2016) PMID 27445469 PMCID PMC4936821

    Sputum eosinophilia occurs in approximately one-third of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and can predict exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatments. Sputum induction, however, requires expertise, may not always be successful, and does not provide poi...
  11. Macrolide therapy suppresses key features of experimental steroid-sensitive and steroid-insensitive asthma.

    Thorax 70(5):458 (2015) PMID 25746630

    Steroid-insensitive endotypes of asthma are an important clinical problem and effective therapies are required. They are associated with bacterial infection and non-eosinophilic inflammatory responses in the asthmatic lung. Macrolide therapy is effective in steroid-insensitive endotypes, such as...
  12. Anti-inflammatory deficiencies in neutrophilic asthma: reduced galectin-3 and IL-1RA/IL-1β.

    Respiratory Research 16(1):5 (2015) PMID 25616863 PMCID PMC4314745

    Galectin-3 (gal-3), a member of the β-galactoside-binding animal lectins, is involved in the recruitment, activation and removal of neutrophils. Neutrophilic asthma is characterized by a persistent elevation of airway neutrophils and impaired efferocytosis. We hypothesized that sputum gal-3 woul...
  13. Airway β-Defensin-1 Protein Is Elevated in COPD and Severe Asthma.

    Mediators of Inflammation 2015:407271 (2015) PMID 26568662 PMCID PMC4629049

    Innate immune antimicrobial peptides, including β-defensin-1, promote the chemotaxis and activation of several immune cells. The role of β-defensin-1 in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. Induced sputum was collected from healthy controls and individuals wit...
  14. Mediators of neutrophil function in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis.

    Chest 146(4):1013 (2014) PMID 24874501

    Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a common and treatable cause of chronic wet cough in children in which the mechanisms are not understood. This study investigates the IL-1 pathway and a neutrophil gene expression signature in PBB. BAL was collected from children in an experimental cohort...
  15. Differential DNA methylation profiles of infants exposed to maternal asthma during pregnancy.

    Pediatric Pulmonology 49(9):852 (2014) PMID 24166889

    Asthma is a complex disease that involves both genetic factors and environmental exposures. Aberrant epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, may be important in asthma development. Fetal exposure to maternal asthma during critical periods of in utero development may lead to epigenetic...
  16. Characteristic DNA methylation profiles in peripheral blood monocytes are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma.

    Epigenetics 9(9):1302 (2014) PMID 25147914 PMCID PMC4169022

    Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation caused by environmental exposures may contribute to the heterogeneous inflammatory response in asthma. Here we investigate alterations in DNA methylation of purified blood monocytes that are associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. Periphera...
  17. Systemic Inflammation in Older Adults With Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome.

    Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research 6(4):316 (2014) PMID 24991455 PMCID PMC4077958

    The role of systemic inflammation on asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is unknown. This study aimed to examine systemic inflammation in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, and to identify associations between clinical characteristics and inflammatory mediators in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome. In 108 adults...
  18. Elevated expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome in neutrophilic asthma.

    European Respiratory Journal 43(4):1067 (2014) PMID 24136334

    Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory airways disorder where interleukin (IL)-1β is thought to be a key mediator, especially in the neutrophilic subtype of asthma. The generation of active IL-1β requires proteolytic cleavage typically mediated through the formation of a caspase-1-containing inf...
  19. Neutrophilic asthma is characterised by increased rhinosinusitis with sleep disturbance and GERD.

    Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy & Immunology 32(1):66 (2014) PMID 24641293

    Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease and eosinophilic, non-eosinophilic and neutrophilic forms are recognised. While clinically similar to eosinophilic asthma, patients with non-eosinophilic asthma have different responses to treatment and little is known about the triggers of symptoms...
  20. Altered sputum granzyme B and granzyme B/proteinase inhibitor-9 in patients with non-eosinophilic asthma.

    Respirology 19(2):280 (2014) PMID 24372772

    The non-eosinophilic phenotype of asthma (NEA) is associated with chronic airway inflammation and airway neutrophilia. An accumulation of apoptotic airway epithelial cells, if not efficiently cleared by efferocytosis, can undergo secondary necrosis, with the potential for inflammation of surroun...