1. Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis.

    Cell 161(2):264 (2015) PMID 25860609 PMCID PMC4393509

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains much of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), but mechanisms controlling the metabolism of gut-derived 5-HT remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the microbiota plays a critical role in regulating host 5-HT. Indigenous spore-forming bacter...
  2. Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis

    Cell (2014)

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains much of the body’s serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), but mechanisms controlling the metabolism of gut-derived 5-HT remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the microbiota plays a critical role in regulating host 5-HT. Indigenous spore-formi...
  3. Gastrointestinal issues in autism spectrum disorder.

    Harvard Review of Psychiatry 22(2):104 (2014) PMID 24614765

    While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by communication impairments, social abnormalities, and stereotypic behaviors, several medical comorbidities are observed in autistic individuals. Of these, gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities are of particular interest given their reported p...
  4. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Cell 155(7):1451 (2013) PMID 24315484 PMCID PMC3897394

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activ...
  5. Microbiota Modulate Behavioral and Physiological Abnormalities Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Cell 155(7):1451 (2013)

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal im...
  6. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Cell 155(7):1451 (2013) PMID 24315484 PMCID PMC3897394

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activ...
  7. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Cell 155(7):1451 (2013) PMID 24315484 PMCID PMC3897394

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activ...
  8. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Cell 155(7):1451 (2013) PMID 24315484 PMCID PMC3897394

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activ...
  9. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Cell 155(7):1451 (2013) PMID 24315484 PMCID PMC3897394

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activ...
  10. Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 31:54 (2013)

    Highlight ► Maternal immune activation leads to chronic, region-specific changes in brain and serum cytokines in offspring throughout development, as in autism and schizophrenia.
  11. Maternal immune activation causes age- and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 31:54 (2013) PMID 22841693 PMCID PMC3529133

    Maternal infection is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SZ). Indeed, modeling this risk factor in mice through maternal immune activation (MIA) causes ASD- and SZ-like neuropathologies and behaviors in the offspring. Although MIA upregulates pro-inflammatory cyt...
  12. Immune Dysregulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder-Chapter Nine

    International Review of Neurobiology 113:269 (2013) PMID 24290389

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder diagnosed based on the presence and severity of core abnormalities in social communication and repetitive behavior, yet several studies converge on immune dysregulation as a feature of ASD. Widespread alterations in immu...
  13. Placental regulation of maternal-fetal interactions and brain development.

    Developmental Neurobiology 72(10):1317 (2012) PMID 22753006

    A variety prenatal insults are associated with the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, autism and cerebral palsy. While the precise mechanisms underlying how transient gestational challenges can lead to later life dysfunctions are largely unknown, the placenta is lik...
  14. Placental regulation of maternal-fetal interactions and brain development.

    Developmental Neurobiology 72(10):1317 (2012) PMID 22753006

    A variety prenatal insults are associated with the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, autism and cerebral palsy. While the precise mechanisms underlying how transient gestational challenges can lead to later life dysfunctions are largely unknown, the placenta is lik...
  15. Modeling an autism risk factor in mice leads to permanent immune dysregulation.

    PNAS 109(31):12776 (2012) PMID 22802640 PMCID PMC3411999

    Increasing evidence highlights a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as immune dysregulation is observed in the brain, periphery, and gastrointestinal tract of ASD individuals. Furthermore, maternal infection (maternal immune activation, MIA) is a ri...
  16. Modeling an autism risk factor in mice leads to permanent immune dysregulation.

    PNAS 109(31):12776 (2012) PMID 22802640 PMCID PMC3411999

    Increasing evidence highlights a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as immune dysregulation is observed in the brain, periphery, and gastrointestinal tract of ASD individuals. Furthermore, maternal infection (maternal immune activation, MIA) is a ri...
  17. Maternal immune activation yields offspring displaying mouse versions of the three core symptoms of autism.

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 26(4):607 (2012) PMID 22310922 PMCID PMC3322300

    The core symptoms of autism are deficits in social interaction and language, and the presence of repetitive/stereotyped behaviors. We demonstrate that behaviors related to these symptoms are present in a mouse model of an environmental risk factor for autism, maternal infection. We stimulate the...
  18. Maternal immune activation yields offspring displaying mouse versions of the three core symptoms of autism

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 26(4):607 (2012)

    Highlight ► We find that activation of the maternal immune system yields offspring with cardinal symptoms of autism: highly repetitive behavior and deficits in communication and sociability.
  19. Poster #10 EFFECTS OF MATERNAL IMMUNE ACTIVATION ON GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS IN THE FETAL BRAIN

    Schizophrenia Research 136:S188 (2012)

  20. Activation of the maternal immune system induces endocrine changes in the placenta via IL-6.

    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 25(4):604 (2011) PMID 21195166 PMCID PMC3081363

    Activation of the maternal immune system in rodent models sets in motion a cascade of molecular pathways that ultimately result in autism- and schizophrenia-related behaviors in offspring. The finding that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a crucial mediator of these effects led us to examine the mechanis...