1. Sitagliptin vs. placebo for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    Journal of Hepatology 65(2):369 (2016) PMID 27151177

    Uncontrolled studies show sitagliptin, an oral DPP-4 inhibitor, may improve alanine aminotransferase and liver histology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. We aimed to compare sitagliptin vs. the efficacy of a placebo in reducing liver fat measured by MRI-derived proton densi...
  2. Novel 3D Magnetic Resonance Elastography for the Noninvasive Diagnosis of Advanced Fibrosis in NAFLD: A Prospective Study.

    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 111(7):986 (2016) PMID 27002798

    Recent studies show two-dimensional (2D)-magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is accurate in diagnosing advanced fibrosis (stages 3 and 4) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Three-dimensional (3D)-MRE is a more advanced version of the technology that can image shear-wave fiel...
  3. Liver: DNA methylation controls liver fibrogenesis.

    Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 13(3):126 (2016) PMID 26860269

  4. Intestinal REG3 Lectins Protect against Alcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Mucosa-Associated Microbiota and Preventing Bacterial Translocation.

    Cell Host & Microbe 19(2):227 (2016) PMID 26867181 PMCID PMC4786170

    Approximately half of all deaths from liver cirrhosis, the tenth leading cause of mortality in the United States, are related to alcohol use. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth, yet little is known about the factors that alter the microbia...
  5. Staging of fibrosis in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by quantitative molecular imaging in rat models.

    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 43(2):179 (2016) PMID 26872443

    The aim of this study was to test the ability of hepatocyte-specific functional imaging to stage fibrosis in experimental rat models of liver fibrosis and progressive NASH. Using ROC analysis we tested the ability of a functional imaging metric to discriminate early (F1) from moderate (F2) fibro...
  6. Promising Therapy Candidates for Liver Fibrosis.

    Frontiers in Physiology 7:47 (2016) PMID 26909046 PMCID PMC4754444

    Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing process in response to repeated and chronic injury to hepatocytes and/or cholangiocytes. Ongoing hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis lead to increase in ROS production and decrease in antioxidant activity, which recruits inflammatory cells from the blood and activa...
  7. The Role of NADPH Oxidases (NOXs) in Liver Fibrosis and the Activation of Myofibroblasts.

    Frontiers in Physiology 7:17 (2016) PMID 26869935 PMCID PMC4735448

    Chronic liver injury, resulted from different etiologies (e.g., virus infection, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis) can lead to liver fibrosis characterized by the excess accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., type I collagen). Hepatic myofibr...
  8. New Developments on the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis.

    Digestive Diseases: clinical reviews 34(5):589 (2016) PMID 27332862 PMCID PMC4961096

    Liver fibrosis results from many chronic injuries and often progresses to cirrhosis, liver failure, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver transplantation is the only treatment available for patients with advanced stages of liver fibrosis. Therefore, new strategies for anti-fib...
  9. New therapies for hepatic fibrosis.

    Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroen... 39 Suppl 1:S75 (2015) PMID 26206573 PMCID PMC4734896

    Liver fibrosis is an outcome of many chronic diseases, and often results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension. Liver transplantation is the only treatment available for patients with advanced stages of liver cirrhosis. Therefore, alternative methods are required to develop new st...
  10. Recent advancement of molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis.

    Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 22(7):512 (2015) PMID 25869468 PMCID PMC4668270

    Liver fibrosis occurs in response to any etiology of chronic liver injury including hepatitis B and C, alcohol consumption, fatty liver disease, cholestasis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the primary source of activated myofibroblasts that produce extracellular matr...
  11. Aging and liver disease.

    Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 31(3):184 (2015) PMID 25850346 PMCID PMC4736713

    Aging is a condition in which a person gradually loses the ability to maintain homeostasis, due to structural alteration or dysfunction. Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases. As the liver has a remarkable ability to regenerate, this review assessed the effect of aging on clinic...
  12. Ezetimibe for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: assessment by novel magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance elastography in a randomized trial (MOZART trial).

    Hepatology 61(4):1239 (2015) PMID 25482832 PMCID PMC4407930

    Ezetimibe inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption and lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Uncontrolled studies have suggested that it reduces liver fat as estimated by ultrasound in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therefore, we aimed to examine the efficacy of ezetimibe versus pl...
  13. Commensal microbiota is hepatoprotective and prevents liver fibrosis in mice.

    FASEB Journal 29(3):1043 (2015) PMID 25466902 PMCID PMC4422368

    Translocation of bacteria and their products across the intestinal barrier is common in patients with liver disease, and there is evidence that experimental liver fibrosis depends on bacterial translocation. The purpose of our study was to investigate liver fibrosis in conventional and germ-free...
  14. Contribution of bone marrow-derived fibrocytes to liver fibrosis.

    Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition 4(1):34 (2015) PMID 25713803 PMCID PMC4318956

    Since the discovery of fibrocytes in 1994 by Dr. Bucala and colleagues, these bone marrow (BM)-derived collagen Type I producing CD45(+) cells remain the most fascinating cells of the hematopoietic system. Despite recent reports on the emerging contribution of fibrocytes to fibrosis of parenchym...
  15. Intestinal FXR agonism promotes adipose tissue browning and reduces obesity and insulin resistance.

    Nature Medicine 21(2):159 (2015) PMID 25559344 PMCID PMC4320010

    The systemic expression of the bile acid (BA) sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has led to promising new therapies targeting cholesterol metabolism, triglyceride production, hepatic steatosis and biliary cholestasis. In contrast to systemic therapy, bile acid release during a meal selectively ac...
  16. Recommendations for Probiotic Use--2015 Update: Proceedings and Consensus Opinion.

    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 49 Suppl 1:S69 (2015) PMID 26447969

    This paper describes the consensus opinion of the participants in the 4th Triennial Yale/Harvard Workshop on Probiotic Recommendations. The recommendations update those of the first 3 meetings that were published in 2006, 2008, and 2011. Recommendations for the use of probiotics in necrotizing e...
  17. Deficiency of NOX1 or NOX4 Prevents Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis in Mice through Inhibition of Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    PLoS ONE 10(7):e0129743 (2015) PMID 26222337 PMCID PMC4519306

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) play a key role in liver injury and fibrosis. Previous studies demonstrated that GKT137831, a dual NOX1/4 inhibitor, attenuated liver fibrosis in mice as well as pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stel...
  18. Role of Gut Microbiota in Liver Disease.

    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 49 Suppl 1:S25 (2015) PMID 26447960 PMCID PMC4602394

    Many lines of research have established a relationship between the gut microbiome and patients with liver disease. For example, patients with cirrhosis have increased bacteremia, increased blood levels of lipopolysaccharide, and increased intestinal permeability. Patients with cirrhosis have bac...
  19. Agreement between TOAST and CCS ischemic stroke classification: the NINDS SiGN study.

    Neurology 83(18):1653 (2014) PMID 25261504 PMCID PMC4223086

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of agreement between stroke subtype classifications made using the Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) and Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) systems. Study subjects included 13,596 adult men and women accrued from 20 US and...
  20. Origin of myofibroblasts in the fibrotic liver in mice.

    PNAS 111(32):E3297 (2014) PMID 25074909 PMCID PMC4136601

    Hepatic myofibroblasts are activated in response to chronic liver injury of any etiology to produce a fibrous scar. Despite extensive studies, the origin of myofibroblasts in different types of fibrotic liver diseases is unresolved. To identify distinct populations of myofibroblasts and quantify...