1. A single low-energy, iron-poor supernova as the source of metals in the star SMSS J031300.36-670839.3.

    Nature 506(7489):463 (2014) PMID 24509711

    The element abundance ratios of four low-mass stars with extremely low metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium) indicate that the gas out of which the stars formed was enriched in each case by at most a few--and potentially only one--low-energy supernova. Such supernovae yield ...
  2. A single low-energy, iron-poor supernova as the source of metals in the star SMSS J031300.36-670839.3.

    Nature 506(7489):463 (2014) PMID 24509711

    The element abundance ratios of four low-mass stars with extremely low metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium) indicate that the gas out of which the stars formed was enriched in each case by at most a few--and potentially only one--low-energy supernova. Such supernovae yield ...
  3. A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z approximately 8.2.

    Nature 461(7268):1254 (2009) PMID 19865165

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the explosions of certain massive stars, and some are bright enough that they should be observable out to redshifts of z > 20 using current technology. Hitherto, the highest redshift measured for any object was z = 6.96, for a Lyma...
  4. A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z approximately 8.2.

    Nature 461(7268):1254 (2009) PMID 19865165

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the explosions of certain massive stars, and some are bright enough that they should be observable out to redshifts of z > 20 using current technology. Hitherto, the highest redshift measured for any object was z = 6.96, for a Lyma...
  5. A novel explosive process is required for the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614.

    Nature 444(7122):1053 (2006) PMID 17183318

    Over the past decade, our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has progressed rapidly, thanks to the discovery and observation of their long-lived afterglow emission. Long-duration (> 2 s) GRBs are associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars ('collapsars', ref. 1), which p...
  6. A novel explosive process is required for the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614.

    Nature 444(7122):1053 (2006) PMID 17183318

    Over the past decade, our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has progressed rapidly, thanks to the discovery and observation of their long-lived afterglow emission. Long-duration (> 2 s) GRBs are associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars ('collapsars', ref. 1), which p...
  7. Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions.

    Nature 442(7106):1014 (2006) PMID 16943832

    Over the past decade, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--including the subclass of X-ray flashes (XRFs)--have been revealed to be a rare variety of type Ibc supernova. Although all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed t...
  8. Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions.

    Nature 442(7106):1014 (2006) PMID 16943832

    Over the past decade, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--including the subclass of X-ray flashes (XRFs)--have been revealed to be a rare variety of type Ibc supernova. Although all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed t...
  9. A photometric redshift of z = 6.39 +/- 0.12 for GRB 050904.

    Nature 440(7081):181 (2006) PMID 16525465

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are the most brilliant transient events in the Universe. Both the bursts themselves and their afterglows have been predicted to be visible out to redshifts of z approximately 20, and therefore to be powerful probes of the early Universe. The burst GRB...
  10. A photometric redshift of z = 6.39 +/- 0.12 for GRB 050904.

    Nature 440(7081):181 (2006) PMID 16525465

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are the most brilliant transient events in the Universe. Both the bursts themselves and their afterglows have been predicted to be visible out to redshifts of z approximately 20, and therefore to be powerful probes of the early Universe. The burst GRB...
  11. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    Nature 438(7070):988 (2005) PMID 16355217

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, ...
  12. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    Nature 438(7070):988 (2005) PMID 16355217

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, ...
  13. The afterglow of GRB 050709 and the nature of the short-hard gamma-ray bursts.

    Nature 437(7060):845 (2005) PMID 16208362

    The final chapter in the long-standing mystery of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) centres on the origin of the short-hard class of bursts, which are suspected on theoretical grounds to result from the coalescence of neutron-star or black-hole binary systems. Numerous searches for the afterglows of s...
  14. The afterglow of GRB 050709 and the nature of the short-hard gamma-ray bursts.

    Nature 437(7060):845 (2005) PMID 16208362

    The final chapter in the long-standing mystery of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) centres on the origin of the short-hard class of bursts, which are suspected on theoretical grounds to result from the coalescence of neutron-star or black-hole binary systems. Numerous searches for the afterglows of s...
  15. The bright optical afterglow of the nearby gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    Nature 423(6942):844 (2003) PMID 12815424

    Past studies of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been hampered by their extreme distances, resulting in faint afterglows. A nearby GRB could potentially shed much light on the origin of these events, but GRBs with a redshift z
  16. The bright optical afterglow of the nearby gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    Nature 423(6942):844 (2003) PMID 12815424

    Past studies of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been hampered by their extreme distances, resulting in faint afterglows. A nearby GRB could potentially shed much light on the origin of these events, but GRBs with a redshift z
  17. Prognostic significance of estrogen receptor status in breast cancer in relation to tumor stage, axillary node metastasis, and histopathologic grading.

    Cancer 54(10):2237 (1984) PMID 6488142

    The value of estrogen receptor (ER) measurements for predicting recurrence and survival rates in primary breast cancer was examined in 121 women who were followed from 5 to 12 years after mastectomy with a median follow-up of 64 months. The prognostic significance of the ER status was evaluated ...
  18. Prognostic significance of estrogen receptor status in breast cancer in relation to tumor stage, axillary node metastasis, and histopathologic grading.

    Cancer 54(10):2237 (1984) PMID 6488142

    The value of estrogen receptor (ER) measurements for predicting recurrence and survival rates in primary breast cancer was examined in 121 women who were followed from 5 to 12 years after mastectomy with a median follow-up of 64 months. The prognostic significance of the ER status was evaluated ...