1. Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment, Immunovirologic Status, and TB Risk: Implications for Testing and Treatment.

    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syn... 72(5):572 (2016) PMID 27049511 PMCID PMC4942351

    Tuberculosis (TB) risk and mortality increase in the 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation. This short-term risk may be a consequence of HAART initiation and immune reconstitution. Alternatively, it may be due to confounding by low CD4 counts and high HIV viral l...
  2. Central nervous system penetration effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs and neuropsychological impairment in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Journal of Neurovirology 22(3):349 (2016) PMID 26572786

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the incidence of severe HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment has declined significantly, whereas the prevalence of the milder forms has increased. Studies suggest that better distribution of cART drugs into the CNS may be i...
  3. Progression of Liver Fibrosis and Modern Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Regimens in HIV-Hepatitis C-Coinfected Persons.

    Clinical Infectious Diseases 62(2):242 (2016) PMID 26400998 PMCID PMC4690484

    Liver diseases progress faster in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected persons than HIV-monoinfected persons. The aim of this study was to compare rates of liver fibrosis progression (measured by the aspartate-to-platelet ratio index [APRI]) among HIV-HCV-coinfec...
  4. A picture is worth a thousand words: maps of HIV indicators to inform research, programs, and policy from NA-ACCORD and CCASAnet clinical cohorts.

    Journal of the International AIDS Society 19(1):20707 (2016) PMID 27049052 PMCID PMC4821890

    Maps are powerful tools for visualization of differences in health indicators by geographical region, but multi-country maps of HIV indicators do not exist, perhaps due to lack of consistent data across countries. Our objective was to create maps of four HIV indicators in North, Central, and Sou...
  5. Enhanced syphilis screening among HIV-positive men (ESSAHM): a study protocol for a clinic-randomized trial with stepped wedge design.

    Implementation Science 11(1):8 (2016) PMID 26772390 PMCID PMC4715363

    The current syphilis epidemic among urban men who have sex with men (MSM) has serious implications for those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Routine and frequent syphilis screening has the potential to ensure early detection and treatment, minimize disease burden, and help c...
  6. Rilpivirine vs. efavirenz-based single-tablet regimens in treatment-naive adults: week 96 efficacy and safety from a randomized phase 3b study.

    AIDS 30(2):251 (2016) PMID 26684822

    To compare efficacy, safety, tolerability, and patient-reported outcomes between two single-tablet regimens, rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (RPV/FTC/TDF) and efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF), in HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive adults. T...
  7. Laboratory Measures as Proxies for Primary Care Encounters: Implications for Quantifying Clinical Retention Among HIV-Infected Adults in North America.

    American Journal of Epidemiology 182(11):952 (2015) PMID 26578717 PMCID PMC4655744

    Because of limitations in the availability of data on primary care encounters, patient retention in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is often estimated using laboratory measurement dates as proxies for clinical encounters, leading to possible outcome misclassification. This study included...
  8. Implementation and Operational Research: Engagement in HIV Care Among Persons Enrolled in a Clinical HIV Cohort in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2011.

    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syn... 70(1):e10 (2015) PMID 26322672 PMCID PMC4623844

    Ensuring that people living with HIV are accessing and staying in care is vital to achieving optimal health outcomes including antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. We sought to characterize engagement in HIV care among participants of a large clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada, from 2001 to 201...
  9. Impact of age on retention in care and viral suppression.

    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syn... 68(4):413 (2015) PMID 25559604 PMCID PMC4334738

    Retention in care is important for all HIV-infected persons and is strongly associated with initiation of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression. However, it is unclear how retention in care and age interact to affect viral suppression. We evaluated whether the association between retentio...
  10. Dolutegravir efficacy at 48 weeks in key subgroups of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in three randomized trials.

    AIDS 29(2):167 (2015) PMID 25387312 PMCID PMC4284010

    Dolutegravir (DTG) has been studied in three trials in HIV treatment-naive participants, showing noninferiority compared with raltegravir (RAL), and superiority compared with efavirenz and ritonavir-boosted darunavir. We explored factors that predicted treatment success, the consistency of obser...
  11. A Randomized Trial of Time-Limited Antiretroviral Therapy in Acute/Early HIV Infection.

    PLoS ONE 10(11):e0143259 (2015) PMID 26600459 PMCID PMC4658016

    It has been proposed that initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) very soon after establishment of HIV infection may be beneficial by improving host control of HIV replication and delaying disease progression. People with documented HIV infection of less than 12 months' duration in Baltimor...
  12. Late initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in Canada: a call for a national public health strategy to improve engagement in HIV care.

    Journal of the International AIDS Society 18(1):20024 (2015) PMID 26443752 PMCID PMC4595457

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly decreases morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. We aimed to characterize the timing of ART initiation based on CD4 cell count from 2000 to 2012 and identify factors associated with late initiation of treatment. Participants from the Can...
  13. Is any job better than no job? Labor market experiences and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV.

    AIDS Care 27(7):907 (2015) PMID 25738528

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and labor market experiences (including unemployment) on mental health among adults living with HIV. We used data provided by 538 participants at clinical and community sites across Ontario, Cana...
  14. Hospital-wide rollout of antimicrobial stewardship: a stepped-wedge randomized trial.

    Clinical Infectious Diseases 59(6):867 (2014) PMID 24928294

    Our objective was to rigorously evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship audit-and-feedback intervention, via a stepped-wedge randomized trial. An effective intensive care unit (ICU) audit-and-feedback program was rolled out to 6 non-ICU services in a randomized sequence. The primary ...
  15. Micronutrient deficiency and treatment adherence in a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in ART-naïve persons with HIV.

    PLoS ONE 9(1):e85607 (2014) PMID 24465617 PMCID PMC3897458

    The MAINTAIN study is an on-going RCT comparing high-dose micronutrient and anti-oxidant supplementation versus recommended daily allowance (RDA) vitamins in slowing HIV immune deficiency progression in ART-naïve people with HIV infection. We planned analysis of the first 127 participants to det...
  16. Fanconi syndrome accompanied by renal function decline with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a prospective, case-control study of predictors and resolution in HIV-infected patients.

    PLoS ONE 9(3):e92717 (2014) PMID 24651857 PMCID PMC3961428

    The predictors of Fanconi syndrome (FS) accompanied by renal function decline with use of the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) have not been assessed. In addition, the natural history of renal recovery from FS after TDF discontinuation is not well-described. We prospectively en...
  17. Evaluation of brief screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS: a systematic review of the literature.

    AIDS 27(15):2385 (2013) PMID 23751261 PMCID PMC3814629

    To systematically review literature on brief screening tools used to detect and differentiate between normal cognition and neurocognitive impairment and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in adult populations of persons with HIV. A formal systematic review. We searched six electroni...
  18. Impact of hepatitis B and C co-infection on health-related quality of life in HIV positive individuals.

    Quality of Life Research 22(7):1525 (2013) PMID 23070749

    Concurrent infection with HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) often occurs due to the commonality in risk factors for acquisition. Few studies have examined the effect of co-infection on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in HIV positive individuals. Ontario HIV Treatme...
  19. Evaluation of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cytopathologic findings in HIV-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women.

    Journal of Infectious Diseases 208(3):454 (2013) PMID 23624362

    The Canadian Women's HIV Study (CWHS) enrolled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women in a longitudinal cohort. This analysis considered the effects of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HPV persistence and cervical squamous intraepithel...
  20. Herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection does not accelerate CD4 count decline in untreated HIV infection.

    Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(3):448 (2013) PMID 23572481

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations are associated with increased HIV load, but whether HSV-2 coinfection accelerates HIV disease is unclear. We compared rates of CD4 count decline according to HSV-2 status in untreated HIV-infected adults. HIV-infected patients with a past period ...