1. Birth of a relativistic outflow in the unusual γ-ray transient Swift J164449.3+573451.

    Nature 476(7361):425 (2011) PMID 21866155

    Active galactic nuclei, which are powered by long-term accretion onto central supermassive black holes, produce relativistic jets with lifetimes of at least one million years, and the observation of the birth of such a jet is therefore unlikely. Transient accretion onto a supermassive black hole...
  2. Birth of a relativistic outflow in the unusual γ-ray transient Swift J164449.3+573451.

    Nature 476(7361):425 (2011) PMID 21866155

    Active galactic nuclei, which are powered by long-term accretion onto central supermassive black holes, produce relativistic jets with lifetimes of at least one million years, and the observation of the birth of such a jet is therefore unlikely. Transient accretion onto a supermassive black hole...
  3. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray acceleration in engine-driven relativistic supernovae.

    Nature Communications 2:175 (2011) PMID 21285953

    The origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remains an enigma. They offer a window to new physics, including tests of physical laws at energies unattainable by terrestrial accelerators. They must be accelerated locally, otherwise, background radiations would severely suppress the flux o...
  4. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray acceleration in engine-driven relativistic supernovae.

    Nature Communications 2:175 (2011) PMID 21285953

    The origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remains an enigma. They offer a window to new physics, including tests of physical laws at energies unattainable by terrestrial accelerators. They must be accelerated locally, otherwise, background radiations would severely suppress the flux o...
  5. A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion.

    Nature 465(7296):322 (2010) PMID 20485429

    Supernovae are thought to arise from two different physical processes. The cores of massive, short-lived stars undergo gravitational core collapse and typically eject a few solar masses during their explosion. These are thought to appear as type Ib/c and type II supernovae, and are associated wi...
  6. A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion.

    Nature 465(7296):322 (2010) PMID 20485429

    Supernovae are thought to arise from two different physical processes. The cores of massive, short-lived stars undergo gravitational core collapse and typically eject a few solar masses during their explosion. These are thought to appear as type Ib/c and type II supernovae, and are associated wi...
  7. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected gamma-ray burst.

    Nature 463(7280):513 (2010) PMID 20110995

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star)...
  8. A relativistic type Ibc supernova without a detected gamma-ray burst.

    Nature 463(7280):513 (2010) PMID 20110995

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) mark the explosive death of some massive stars and are a rare sub-class of type Ibc supernovae. They are distinguished by the production of an energetic and collimated relativistic outflow powered by a central engine (an accreting black hole or neutron star)...
  9. A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z approximately 8.2.

    Nature 461(7268):1254 (2009) PMID 19865165

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the explosions of certain massive stars, and some are bright enough that they should be observable out to redshifts of z > 20 using current technology. Hitherto, the highest redshift measured for any object was z = 6.96, for a Lyma...
  10. A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z approximately 8.2.

    Nature 461(7268):1254 (2009) PMID 19865165

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are thought to result from the explosions of certain massive stars, and some are bright enough that they should be observable out to redshifts of z > 20 using current technology. Hitherto, the highest redshift measured for any object was z = 6.96, for a Lyma...
  11. An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova.

    Nature 453(7194):469 (2008) PMID 18497815

    Massive stars end their short lives in spectacular explosions--supernovae--that synthesize new elements and drive galaxy evolution. Historically, supernovae were discovered mainly through their 'delayed' optical light (some days after the burst of neutrinos that marks the actual event), preventi...
  12. An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova.

    Nature 453(7194):469 (2008) PMID 18497815

    Massive stars end their short lives in spectacular explosions--supernovae--that synthesize new elements and drive galaxy evolution. Historically, supernovae were discovered mainly through their 'delayed' optical light (some days after the burst of neutrinos that marks the actual event), preventi...
  13. An unusually brilliant transient in the galaxy M85.

    Nature 447(7143):458 (2007) PMID 17522679

    Historically, variable and transient sources have both surprised astronomers and provided new views of the heavens. Here we report the discovery of an optical transient in the outskirts of the lenticular galaxy Messier 85 in the Virgo cluster. With a peak absolute R magnitude of -12, this event ...
  14. An unusually brilliant transient in the galaxy M85.

    Nature 447(7143):458 (2007) PMID 17522679

    Historically, variable and transient sources have both surprised astronomers and provided new views of the heavens. Here we report the discovery of an optical transient in the outskirts of the lenticular galaxy Messier 85 in the Virgo cluster. With a peak absolute R magnitude of -12, this event ...
  15. A novel explosive process is required for the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614.

    Nature 444(7122):1053 (2006) PMID 17183318

    Over the past decade, our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has progressed rapidly, thanks to the discovery and observation of their long-lived afterglow emission. Long-duration (> 2 s) GRBs are associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars ('collapsars', ref. 1), which p...
  16. A novel explosive process is required for the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614.

    Nature 444(7122):1053 (2006) PMID 17183318

    Over the past decade, our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has progressed rapidly, thanks to the discovery and observation of their long-lived afterglow emission. Long-duration (> 2 s) GRBs are associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars ('collapsars', ref. 1), which p...
  17. Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions.

    Nature 442(7106):1014 (2006) PMID 16943832

    Over the past decade, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--including the subclass of X-ray flashes (XRFs)--have been revealed to be a rare variety of type Ibc supernova. Although all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed t...
  18. Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions.

    Nature 442(7106):1014 (2006) PMID 16943832

    Over the past decade, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--including the subclass of X-ray flashes (XRFs)--have been revealed to be a rare variety of type Ibc supernova. Although all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed t...
  19. A photometric redshift of z = 6.39 +/- 0.12 for GRB 050904.

    Nature 440(7081):181 (2006) PMID 16525465

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are the most brilliant transient events in the Universe. Both the bursts themselves and their afterglows have been predicted to be visible out to redshifts of z approximately 20, and therefore to be powerful probes of the early Universe. The burst GRB...
  20. A photometric redshift of z = 6.39 +/- 0.12 for GRB 050904.

    Nature 440(7081):181 (2006) PMID 16525465

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their afterglows are the most brilliant transient events in the Universe. Both the bursts themselves and their afterglows have been predicted to be visible out to redshifts of z approximately 20, and therefore to be powerful probes of the early Universe. The burst GRB...